Monday, June 6, 2011

B-2 Spirit bomber

These advanced bomber called the B-2 Spirit or the Spirit, to respond to needs in the United States Air Force fighting the next century, designed and made. For what Pentagon planners have been confirmed, equip countries increasingly belligerent United States, the types of long-range missiles and precision ground to the air which can be an important obstacle to future military operations will be considered Americans. Hence, the new generation combat aircraft, maximum concealment must maintain the radar. B-2 bombers, and next to it and the F/A-22 Raptor aircraft like F-117 Nighthawk with this view, there formed Rsh’ foot.

B-2 Spirit by the Supreme companies, "Northrop - Grumman" was built, a secretive bomber (stealth), and HP (Multirole) is one that is capable of common types of nuclear bombs to throw. The bomber, an important phase of the program produces advanced bomber in the United States is considered. B-2, is the most expensive plane ever built in world history is the price for each aircraft is estimated, a figure between 2.2 billion to 1.157 to be mature. This figure, according to aircraft construction period, from high to low has changed.Concealment technology, is a way to penetrate the defense system before it, by combat aircraft, was considered impossible to penetrate. Initial production to 135 aircraft, eventually in late 1980, the number of 75 aircraft was reduced, but finally by President Bush (father), the final number to purchase the 21 aircraft and it was during his annual speech Zhanvyh’ history was completed in 1991 to inform the public. The 21 aircraft, in December 1993 on gradually, gradually, the air base, "White I» (Whiteman) in Missouri (Missouri) were delivered. In the first three years of entering service, B-2 to about 90% of its throughput achieved. During an assessment done by the United States Air Force released the results of its accuracy, B-2 aircraft bombed two armed, against 75 other aircraft type is common!


Most important feature of B-2, without need of aerial refueling over the Pacific.Required to meet Air Force nuclear attack against the Soviet Union, requires that the bomber was able without refueling aircraft, through the Pacific and reach the borders of Soviet nuclear attack would do. According to defense doctrine the United States, China and Krh’ North America also are considered potential enemies. With the collapse of the Soviet Union, China and North Krh’ Zmrh’ COMES FIRST enemies are the United States was still space for these countries need is the Pacific route.
Air refueling capability, is used when the engine lubrication (due to oil in gasoline) and increased flight continuance, be required. Despite being given B-52 bombers and B-1B, United States Air Force, requested production of the B-2 bombers as manned with high innate ability to balance cart presented. The bombers must have the ability to be seen (by radar) and secretive or phrase (stealth) targets the protection and many of them are done (no worries) attack. The option is a very 21st century am, will be useful.
Revolutionary plan merger Khsysh’ "lower observe maintaining high aerodynamic efficiency" and "high capacity ammunition loading, rates is an important distinction that makes the B-2 bombers will be the former. B-2 win against passing 11,000 kilometers without refueling is air. Also, fewer features observed by the radar, very high freedom at high altitudes to give the bomber, so, board the aircraft increased and the field is very open and easy to operate sensors spotter planes are provided.

Using "Global Objective System» (GATS), a combination of Global Positioning System (GPS)-guided smart bombs and the means of satellites such as JDAM, B-2 bombers could Radar APQ-181 is very powerful to correct errors Aim Global, and benefit a lot more careful when using satellite guided smart bombs to the laser guided bombs normally does business. In this way, B-2 bomber is capable of 16 ground-based target at the same time to hit.
GATS stands for GPS Aided Targeting System 
JDAM stands for Joint Direct Attack Monition 

Concealment feature B-2 is a combination of reducing the following: 
* Infrared radiation 
* Voice engines 
* Electromagnetic radiation 
* Lkh’ created on the radar p. 

All of the above, makes it difficult to intercept and identify the aircraft is. Many Radarhayy profile type identified below, privacy remains; however, use of composite materials (hybrid), a special coating on the housing project called "flying wing", where the increased capabilities that the secrecy bombers, are impressive.
B-2 bomber has a crew of two; left one pilot and mission commander on the right side are, these two people, four times the power Khdmh’ B-1B bombers or B-52 Five people have Khdmh’ .

Tarykhchh’ operations:

Life on the B-2 bomber project called the Black Project, which plans to build "penetrating bombers at high altitude" or HAPB were starts. This program, then build "advanced technology bomber" or ATB, will change direction and has a project code named Senior Cejay that was eventually produced was B-2 Spirit.During the decade in 1980, a figure of over 23 billion dollars spent on R & B-2 was produced. Also shift the project's goal of making the 1985 high altitude bomber to a low altitude bomber had been changed, costs increased sharply, because a massive redesign was needed. Because of the intense secrecy during design and construction of B-2 was applied to the construction project, one of the most secret programs of the United States Air Force went, no opportunity to criticize the heavy volume cost of this project was created among the public.

HAPB stands for High Altitude Penetrating Bomber 
ATB stands for Advanced Technology Bomber 

The first B-2 aircraft on 22 November 1988 from its facility Shyanh’ number 42 Palmdale Air Force Base in California (where the place was built) was brought out to show the public revenue. B-2 first flew on 17 July 1989 was performed.
The following centers are all located in California, responsible for flight testing, engineering, design and production of the aircraft were: 
Combined Test Forc 
Air Force Flight Test Center
Edwards Air Force Base

Spirit of Missouri:

The first B-2 aircraft in the name "Spirit of Missouri" or named Spirit of Missouri, was delivered on December 17, 1993 was the Air Force. Dpvy maintenance of the aircraft, on a contractor partners cope United States Air Force aircraft that the Air Force Logistics Center located at Tinker Air Force Base in Oklahoma City provides support and services.

Contractors produce B-2:
Contractor B-2 basic due process for the whole system design and integration between their systems integration division Nvrvsvrvp Supreme companies - is Grumman. The following subsidiary companies also produce B-2 are involved:
Boeing Integrated Defense System 
Hughes Aircraft 
General Electric Aircraft Engines 

Another contractor, company training equipment maker for the bombers is Khdmh’. The training devices, including "Arms Training System" and "Mission Training System" which is made by the Company Link Simulation & Training has been done. The company, a branch of the company L-3 Communications is one of the L-3 also in the last part of training company called Hughes or Hughes Training Inc HTI has been considered. Link Company in the past with other CAE or Link Flight Simulation Corp was known, also responsible for the development, maintenance and crew Shnakrdn with the education system was.

Base B-2:

Early 2003, the United States Air Force Base in Missouri called me white, core operational B-2 bomber was considered. The maintenance facility Vyzhh’ B-2 in joint military base called Great Britain and the United States located in the Indian Ocean Dygvgarsya built. Followed in 2005, these facilities were established in the Jzyrh’ Guam. Vyzhh’ equipment facility at Air Force Base Fairford in Gloucestershire called Great Britain UK were built.
* Jzyrh’ Dygvgarsya or Diego Garcia is owned by Great Britain and the Indian Ocean - about 1600 km south of India - is located. (The southern most island of the coast of Iran, the distance is about 3400 km)
* Jzyrh’ Guam or Guam, United Mthdh’ owned and America is located in the West Pacific. 
* Glvs Trshr or urban Gloucestershire in southwest England.

Diego Garcia base located 900 km south of the Maldives

Sabqh’ in real war:

B -2 in three operations since the company has had martial Jdaganh’. 
-2 No first use during the 1999 Kosovo war. During this battle, no planes and -2 were highly successful for the first time in the world, satellite guided JDAM bombs to the world was introduced. Success for Kosovo operations, the bombers in the liberation of Afghanistan from Taliban operations and Operation Iraqi Freedom also attended.

-2 Without first plane was a war to invade Afghanistan over began. B -2 after the collapse of thousands of bombs on the main Mqrhay Taliban regime, its air base in Dygvgarsya Jzyrh’ are completed and after landing, refueling and changing crews, your next flight would begin immediately. This practice, with more compact during the Iraq war also carried Dygvgarsya database. Others, however, the mission is no hyper -2 Iraq, from my white Air Force Base in Missouri was performed.
Missions over Iraq, all over 30 hours of continuous flight needed sometimes in some missions, this time beyond the 50 hour flight could be continued. In these long flights, no Khdmh’ -2 in order to overcome sleep, have to use pills and stimulants Amphetamine Zdkhvab called Modafinil, or were to Qablythayshan during long flights, be preserved.

Operational Test and Evaluation Center, the Pentagon in its 2003 annual report reported that maintenance YF03 bomber squadron is not doing a good shape; because of this, the existence of absorbent material used by the radar waves or the equipment that makes maintain the status "being seen" in the plane is.Despite these problems, no -2 with maximum preparation, Operation Iraqi Freedom in 2003 and attended during the war, 583 the number of satellite guided bombs to the JDAM type of predetermined objectives threw.

Fire Control Radar:

Company Northrop - Grumman, a new radar designed for the bombers that have radiation absorbing property is covered up features no Radargryzy -2, while the effective deployment of radar systems, reducing Nyabd. This new material called the Alternate High-Frequency Material or AHFM are called, the means of four robots are broken. Means of making the radar AN/APQ-181 Raytheon, the radar task type is hidden and J-band working without a pilot is able to -2 in the plane of natural land cover such as side mountains and hills to fly brought. This is no flight at an altitude of 200 feet -2 in the Edward Air Force Base has been tested and proven. On November 2007, the company radar manufacturer, Raytheon, a contract for development of new types of AESA radar, which works in Ku band, won. The new radar work to prevent interference with radar B -2 satellite systems business, has been made since 2007 and the end of 2010 to be installed in the B -2.

Interactive electronic systems act or ECM 
* Gyrndh’ warning radar (RWR) Construction Lockheed Martin 
* Assistance and Management System Defense Defensive Management System or DMS Construction Northrop - Grumman and Lockheed Martin to name AN/APR-50 

Navigation and communication systems:

Without navigation system collection -2, include the following: 
* Tactical air navigation system called Build Rockwell Collins Rockwell Collins TCN-250 
* "Tool Vyzhh’ landing" or the name of ILS VIR-130A Instrument Landing System
Without radio communication system -2 * Construction Company Rockwell Collins (Rockwell Collins) is. Milstar system, a collection of highly advanced strategic and tactical satellite is Rlh’ waves in Series B -2 Block 30 is installed.


Instead of giving the cabin for two crew members made. Without the cabin 2, a 9-channel color display, called EFIS electronic flight instrumentation system or used. On this display, flight information, motors, by means of data acquisition sensors and aircraft ammunition status is displayed. Only a key means of pilot mode Tuesday, could rise up in a state plane (Takeoff mode), mode of war (go-to war mode) and landing mode (Landing mode) will be.


-2 Ammunition without all that are installed inside the chamber inside the body and in second place individually at the center of the aircraft are replaced. B -2 up to 40,000 pounds, including weapons, ammunition and typical nuclear Shvndh’ precision guided bombs of the type of JDAM, free fall bombs and a number of naval warfare Vyzhh’ missions will carry.
Install any special status within Ammunition, including a "rolling launch site» (Rotary Launcher Assembly) and two "shaped shelf location» (Bomb Rack Assembly) is carrying bombs. 

* Up to 40,000 pounds (18,000 kg) bomb, 500-pound Mk82 type the maximum number 80 numbers installed at BRA 
* Up to 27,000 pounds (12,000 kg) bomb, 750-pound CBU-type number to number up to 36 installed at the site of BRA 
* Up to 16 bombs, each weighing up to 2000 pounds of type Mk84 bombs and JDAM-84 and JDAM-102 at RLA 
* 16 the number of free-fall nuclear bombs, B61 or B83 type at RLA 
* A very powerful bomb, "Strength breaker" or "attacker into the ground" called B61-11 to protect fortifications familiar installed underground. 
* Highly advanced strategic cruise missiles AGM-129; range 1500 miles (2400 km). 
* 16 JDAM satellite guided bombs 
(Place a rack carrying ammunition (Bomb Rack Assembly) in the B-2, Akhyrn Nvrsvrp by companies - the Grumman has been optimized in this place, now number 80 can be installed JDAM bombs.) 
Deployment of new electronic systems in Block 30 B-2A, the use of weapons such as JSOW and laser guided bombs GBU-28 has provided: 
* Shvndh’ called JSOW guided bombs or AGM-154 Joint Standoff Weapon 
* Surface to air missile, or JASSM Joint Air-to-Surface Stand-off Missiles 
* Guided bombs or Shvndh’ WCMD Wind Compensated Munitions Dispenser 

A "weapon system interface" called New GWIS or Generic Weapons Interface System -2 when no upgrade to the standard Block 30 is embedded in them. To help this new digital collection, without -2 able to be a mixture of different weapons based on technology Stand-Off (as JSOW) and direct attack munitions (like JDAM) at the same time and sorting in a flight to transport. Therefore, -2 can be no time to four different types of goals in a mission to attack.


4 turbofan engines F118-GE-100 GE building, inside Bdnh’ wings, are embedded.The engine in the exhaust, cooling system is an embedded temperature and therefore the amount of heat created by Lkh’ B-2, reduced. These engines without -2 with 336,500 pounds gross weight equal to easily enable the band arose Zyrsvt to achieve maximum speed.

B -2 Air fair:

Due to the soaring price of B-2, its display in public in the near Yndh’ not seem likely. During the year 2004, and in situ testing (Static), B -2 Mvz·h’ at United States Air Force near Dayton in Ohio state income public display. These tests to measure body Saz·h’ and enter the destructive pressure test point were performed. Museum's restoration team Knndh’, for more than a year, for installation Dvbarh’ body parts affected Dydh’ spent. The patch body, clearly without apparent only parts -2 were included because in-situ tests on the body, the inner ones, will not damage. If these tests on an actual operational B -2 were performed, the exhibition would show the provider as the most expensive man-made is known.

Receiver unit to service B-2:

* I have 509 battalions, based on my white Air Force Base (Whiteman), including 13 bombers Askadranhay my 393 and I'm 394th Training Squadron 
* 53 am Battalion, based in Aglyn Air Base (Eglin), including training and evaluation squadron 72've owned my white base 
* My 57th Battalion, based in Nlys Air Base (Nellis), including armed familiar Askadranhay my 325 and my 715 (inactive)

Miscellaneous on B-2:

-2 * B with all the names of various states are America name investment. The statement named as Spirit + name states "has been introduced. It has two exceptions: a number aircraft (AV-1) in the name of "America's Soul" or Spirit of America and the aircraft number 19 (AV-19) in the name Kitty Hawk Spirit or Spirit of Kitty Hawk is the name of investment have.

* B-2, bombers like F-117, the feature Payh’ being seen or created on a very small Lkh’ p. radar is made. 

* For reasons that still are not confidential, the edges of the wings Hmlh’ B-2, a very powerful means of which an electric current source with output current varies Agzvz·hay B -2, are charged. 

Strengthening low-traction motors * B -2 by experts Jane "s Defence case has been proposed. 

* Today has been proven that the ionized gas (plasma) by the radar antenna emits no -2 are affected far more than appearance Andaz·h’ a solid increase in radar cross section, play. Induced voltage may be due to a strong edge in attack without -2, the radiation is reduced. Another reason could reduce friction (drag) is because when moving parts Lbh’ attack (eg slot) in a certain direction are bent, the ionized air into the space created will influence or caused a robust means of induced voltage, low-or his work is lost. In other words, that is true - the very strong induction voltage Lbh’ attack in order to reduce drag supersonic speeds - 1968 and earlier, during wind tunnel tests conducted by Northrop factory engineers Alyrtbh’ to prove was reached. The induction voltage tests strong edge attack, as well as to reduce the sound created by wind flow from the deal had been done to the wings. (And how true this reduction on the wings of the wind collision sound without -2, has not yet been determined.)

* Football team, "Kansas City Brygad, aircraft plan B -2 as the club's logo uses. 

View Public Profile Series B-2A Block 30 

Crew: 2 people 
Length: 20.9 m = 60 ft 
Faslh’ double wings: 52.12 m = 172 ft 
Height: 5.1 m = 17 ft 
Wing Area: 460 square meters = 5000 square feet 
Empty weight: 71,700 kg = 158,000 pounds 
Loaded weight: 152,600 kg = 336,500 pounds 
Maximum weight allowed for the rise: 171,000 kg = 376,000 pounds 
Propulsion: 4 General Electric turbofan engines made the name of F118-GE-100 with each stretch 77 = 17 300 Pavndfyt Kylvnyvtn 


Maximum speed: 764 km h = 475 mph = 410 h Nat 
Range: 12,000 km = 6500 miles = 5600 miles Natykal 
Service ceiling: 15,000 m = 50,000 ft 
Wing loading weight: 329 kg m = 67.3 pounds on the square feet 
Stretching weight ratio: 0.205

Shnasnamh’ General: 

Type aircraft: stealth bomber (hidden from the radar) 
Manufacturer: Northrop - Grumman 
First Flight: 17 / 07 / 1989 
New service: April 1997 
Status: Operational 
User: Air Force United States of America 
Number built: 21 aircraft 
Price: 1.157 to 2.2 billion (in 1998)

B-2 as Bqapzyrtryn, stable and most advanced aircraft is known on the world aviation

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